Calendar

  • Beginning of the Year
    Ez 40:1 references “the beginning of the year on the 10th day of the month”.  This would be the Day of Atonement, or the 10th of Ethanim.  The word “beginning” is the Hebrew word “roshe” which means principal, sum or top (H7218).  The word “year” is the Hebrew word “shawneh” and combined as in Rosh Hashanah, commonly known as the Feast of Trumpets.  This sets the principal, top or beginning of the year as the month of Ethanim.  It is during the month of Ethanim that the beginning of the year is established, after the Feast of Tabernacles.  There is no other scriptural reference for the beginning of the year.
  •  Both Ex 23:16 and Ex 34:22 (KJV) reference the Feast of Tabernacles (Ethanim 15-22) as being “in the end of the year” and “at years end” respectively.  The Hebrew Roots Bible better translates these two verses as “the going out of the year” and “after the turn of the year”.  In Ex 23:16, the Hebrew word for “end” is “yawtsaw” (H3318) and means to go out, go forth, come forth or appear.  The word “end” in    Ex 34:22 is from the Hebrew “tequphah” (H8622) and means a complete cycle or revolution of the sun.  The Hebrew Roots Bible translates these verses as “at the going out of the year” and “after the turn of the year”.  This is referring to the cycle of the old year going out and the new year coming in.  The Feast of Tabernacles is the festival at which the harvest is celebrated.  The preparation and planting of next year’s harvest would commence immediately after the Feast of Tabernacles.
  • The end of the 6th year of sowing and reaping initiates the Sabbatical year which starts on the Day of Atonement.  The scriptural instruction shows us that the trumpet (shofar) is blown to initiate the Jubilee year (Lev 25:8-10).  By necessity, the previous year, whether Sabbatical or not must end the day before. The result is the new Sabbatical or Jubilee year begins on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur).  This is the start of the new (agricultural) year.  The scripture below (Deu 31:9-11) instructs the Israelite’s to read the law 4 days later at the Feast of Tabernacles at the end of the Sabbatical year that had just completed:

    And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, which bare the ark of the covenant of YHWH, and unto all the elders of Israel. And Moses commanded them, saying, At the end of every seven years, in the solemnity of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles, When all Israel is come to appear before YHWH thy Eloah in the place which he shall choose, thou shalt read this law before all Israel in their hearing.
    (Deu 31:9-11 KJV) 
  • Implied in the following scripture is the beginning of the year is the season of the “first rain” (IE. early rain).  The autumn rains (also called the early rains) come in September-October, and the spring rains are in March-April.  Those rains begin and end the rainy season.  It follows in the context of this scripture that the beginning of the year is when the first rains (early rains) occur.

    For the land, whither thou goest in to possess it, is not as the land of Egypt, from whence ye came out, where thou sowedst thy seed, and wateredst it with thy foot, as a garden of herbs: But the land, whither ye go to possess it, is a land of hills and valleys, and drinketh water of the rain of heaven: A land which YHWH thy Eloah careth for: the eyes of YHWH thy Eloah are always upon it, from the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year.  And it shall come to pass, if ye shall hearken diligently unto my commandments which I command you this day, to love YHWH your Eloah, and to serve him with all your heart and with all your soul, That I will give you the rain of your land in his due season, the first rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil.

    (Deu 11:10-14 KJV)

    1. Beginning of year = first rain
    2. Middle of year = latter rain and beginning of harvest (grain crops)
    3. End of year = completion of harvest (grapes & olives)
  • It is written in Joel that the latter rains come in the first month  as follows: Be glad then, ye children of Zion, and rejoice in YHWH your Eloah: for he hath given you the former rain moderately, and he will cause to come down for you the rain, the former rain, and the latter rain in the first month (the word month is added in KJV).
    (Joe 2:23 KJV)
    Note –
    some Bible versions translation first month “as before”
  • Beginning of months
    This month is to be the beginning of months for you; it is the first month of your year.
    (Ex 12:2 HCSB)
    The word “beginning” is the same Hebrew word “roshe” used in Ez 40:1.  It means the principal or top of months (new moons) or “roshe khodesh”.  The beginning of months does not necessarily mean beginning of the year.  The beginning of months is simply the number one month.  The Gregorian calendar has conditioned us to associate the beginning month (January) with the beginning of the year (New Years).  This is a completely arbitrary association that is made by tradition and has no associated scriptural calendar practice.
  • The Biblical calendar numbers the months starting in the middle of the year (agriculture cycle).  The 1st month (Abib) comes in the middle of the year.

Notice the Hebrew Roots Bible translation:

And you shall observe a Feast of Weeks for yourself, the first-fruits of the harvest of wheat; also the Feast of Ingathering after the turn of the year. (Ex 34:22 HRB)

There is zero scriptural evidence for 2 separate calendars; one for a civil year (starting in Ethanim) and one for a sacred year (starting in Abib).  This is a man made distinction not supported by scripture.  There is no scripture that states the new year starts with Abib.  More specifically, Abib is referred to as the beginning of months (not the new year as we think of January on the Gregorian calendar).  In other words, month number one is Abib, not the new year.  The Gregorian calendar has conditioned us to correlate the new year with the first month (January).  This custom has been carried over to YHWY’s calendar but simply has no basis.

The biblical agricultural/farming calendar cycle offsets the numbering of the months by 7 months.  The new year starts in Ethanim with the time of sowing immediately after the FOT.  The agricultural/farming/Jubilee cycle is marked by The Blowing of a Trumpet at Atonement (Lev 25:9).  Also see the in depth study titled  Sabbatical and Jubilee Analysis Pt 1.

Biblical Calendar

Number of month

Hebrew
Name

Babylonian Name

Gregorian
Name

7

Roshe Shawneh

Ethanim

Tishri

Sep-Oct

Beginning of YearSabbatical and Jubilee cycle starts Ex 23:16Ex 34:22Lev 25:9

8

Bul

Kheshvan

Oct-Nov

StartSowing

9

9th

Kislev

Nov-Dec

Sowing

10

10th

Tevet

Dec-Jan

Sowing

11

11th

Shevat

Jan-Feb

Sowing

12

12th

Adar

Feb-Mar

   13 *

13th

Adar II

Mar-Apr

*** as necessary

1

Roshe Khodesh

Abib

Nisan

Mar–Apr

Beginning of months Ex 12:2StartReaping

2

Ziv

Iyyar

Apr-May

Reaping

3

3rd

Sivan

May-Jun

Reaping

4

4th

Tammuz

Jun-Jul

Reaping

5

5th

Av

Jul-Aug

Reaping

6

6th

Elul

Aug-Sep

Reaping

You shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free – John 8:32